MACD is an acronym for moving average convergence/divergence. It is a technical indicator developed by Gerald Appel in the late-1970s and used by stock traders. Over the course of the past 40 years, MACD has become one of the most popular technical indicators within the trading community.
MACD is always included as a standard indicator with most charting services. It is used by millions of traders on a daily basis to generate entry and exit signals for stocks, commodities, and crypto.
Glossary of Terms
Before we continue, here are the key terms and what they mean to help you understand as we go along.
- EMA – Exponential Moving Average. This moving average takes into account the price movement of a stock but puts extra value on the most recent price movements.
- SMA – Simple Moving Average. This calculates the average price of a stock without putting weight on any trends.
- WMA – Weighted Moving Average. Like EMA this puts extra value on a trend. Each price going back in time has an addition (weight) made to it. As the time gets further back, this addition gets smaller. In contrast, EMA only adds value (weight) to the most recent prices.
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The basic premise of MACD is to reveal changes in a stock or commodity. It measures differences in the strength, direction, momentum, and duration of trends.
Essentially, MACD is a calculation of two EMAs.
Appel tested several different moving averages. He discovered that the best length of each moving average was a 12-day period and a 26-day period for predictions.
MACD can work well with any time period though, most traders prefer to use MACD with daily data. To do this the formula involves subtracting the 12-day EMA from the 26-day EMA.
The formula used to calculate MACD is quite simple:
- 12-period EMA (short) – 26-period EMA (long)
Different Types of Averages in MACD
Now we know about MACD and different averages, here is how it works in practice.
This is six months of trading activity for Amazon stock. The chart displays SMA, EMA, and WMA. At first glance, you will notice that all three moving averages are fairly correlated. This shows that all averages are calculated in basically the same way.
During his original research, Gerald Appel discovered that EMA generated the most consistent results.
In terms of buy and sell signals, MACD is a fairly simple indicator. A buy signal is generated when the 12-day EMA crosses above the 26-day EMA.
A sell signal occurs when the 12-day EMA falls below the 26-day EMA.
Typically, MACD is displayed with a histogram located at the bottom of a price chart. The histogram allows the trader to view the strength or weakness of each buy/sell signal.
The following chart displays six months of price activity for ETH (Ethereum). The MACD histogram is located at the bottom of the chart. The green line represents the 12-day EMA, and the red line represents the 26-day EMA. As you can see from the chart, the histogram rises in value as the MACD buy signal gains momentum (green bars). The histogram falls in value as the MACD sell signal gains momentum (red bars).
MACD is very popular with momentum traders because it is one of the few indicators that measure the strength or weakness of each trading signal. This feature provides traders with another tool to enter and exit the market. MACD continues to be one of the most widely followed indicators within the technical analysis community.
And that is all there is to it. It seems difficult on the surface, and it may take you a couple of read-throughs of this guide to fully understand it. Once it clicks though, it is a very simple concept.
Brief Summary of MACD
- MACD is an acronym for moving average convergence/divergence.
- It is a technical indicator developed by Gerald Appel in the late-1970s.
- MACD is used by stock, commodity, and crypto traders.
- It has become a very popular technical indicator within the trading community.
- MACD is based on two moving averages.
- The optimum length of each moving average is a 12-day period and a 26-day period.
- There are three types of moving averages: SMA, EMA, and WMA.
- MACD uses an exponential moving average (EMA).
- EMA places more importance on recent price data compared to SMA.
- EMA places a higher weight on today’s closing price versus previous days.
- SMA gives an equal weighting to each day within the selected time period.
- WMA places a different weighting on each day within the moving average.
- MACD buy signal is generated when the 12-day EMA crosses above the 26-day EMA.
- MACD sell signal is generated when the 12-day EMA falls below the 26-day EMA.
- Charting services usually display MACD in the form of a histogram.
- Typically, the histogram is located at the bottom of a price chart.
- Traders use the histogram to view the strength or weakness of each trading signal.
- MACD is very popular with momentum traders.
Everything You Need to Know About Binance USD
Binance USD (BUSD) is a fiat-backed stablecoin designed to address issues of accessibility, flexibility, and speed on the blockchain. A cryptocurrency exchange leader, BUSD, is currently the second-largest stablecoin on the blockchain by market cap.
This flexible cryptocurrency is stable, regulated, and can be swapped on multiple blockchains. Investors can use BUSD on the Ethereum chain, Binance Chain, and Binance Smart Chains.
Binance USD (BUSD) was created to be a safe investment for cryptocurrency investors looking to invest in a low-volatility stake. This cryptocurrency is pegged at the value of the US Dollar. The New York State Department of Financial Services regulates Paxos, the creators of this currency.
USD is a fiat-backed stablecoin backed by Paxos instead of a government. As a result, Paxos holds the equivalent of the total amount of BUSD in US dollars in its financial reserves. BUSD is a stablecoin that keeps pace with the price of the United States dollar.
When the price of the dollar rises or falls, the price of BUSD fluctuates as well. Paxos issues monthly audits to verify collateralization.
1. BUSD is regulated
2. Fiat-backed stablecoin backed by a reserve
3. 1:1 ratio price fluctuates with US Dollar
4. Operates on multiple blockchains
Paxos and Binance created Binance USD.
Binance USD (BUSD) was launched in September 2019 as a partnership between Paxos and Binance.
They first issued BUSD on the Ethereum blockchain as ERC-20 tokens. Binance USD is one of only three cryptocurrency tokens currently approved by Wall Street regulators. The New York-based financial company Paxos issues BUSD tokens.
Paxos collateralize BUSD tokens by holding equivalent dollar amounts in regulated US bank accounts. Paxos is also responsible for creating and burning BUSD tokens.
Paxos and Binance designed BUSD to be a low-volatility investment for crypto traders seeking highly liquid investments. Investors can easily convert their BUSD investment into fiat-backed currency during times of volatility.
Cryptocurrency experts recommend taking security measures like using two-factor authorization (2FA) to manage online Binance USD accounts and wallets. Serious investors use Binance USD wallet software to store, protect, and manage investments. They do this by using public and private keys to store value.
We do not provide investment advice. Cryptocurrency traders looking to invest in Binance USD should do their research on the history and performance of BUSD and choose the best options that fit their investing style and budget.
It’s important for investors to consider how much they can afford to lose on investments with downturns before committing to any investment. The creators of Binance USD designed BUSD as a low-volatility asset for crypto traders seeking high liquidity. This stablecoin’s goal is to remain stable and as close to the value of one dollar as possible. While its performance appears stable, this can change at any time.
What are Candlesticks and How to Read Them
A candlestick is a type of price chart used in technical analysis to forecast the future price direction of stocks, commodities, and cryptocurrencies. Each candlestick is a graphical representation of a price movement for a specific period. Four different price points are displayed on each candlestick. They include open, high, low, and close.
Candlesticks are one of the oldest forms of technical analysis. According to historical records, candlestick charting can be traced back to Japanese rice merchants during the 18th century. Most financial historians agree that Munehisa Homma was responsible for popularizing candlestick charting.
Candlestick formations are based on a strict set of rules which are universally accepted among all traders and investors. Let’s review a few of the most basic candlestick formations and patterns.
A solid red candlestick is displayed if the opening price is above the closing price (Chart #7).
A hollow candlestick is displayed if the closing price is above the opening price (Chart #8).
Bullish Candlestick Patterns
Big White Candle – The market opens near the low and closes near the high (Chart #9).
Doji – The opening and closing price is virtually identical (Chart #10).
Hammer – A candlestick that consists of a small body near the daily high with a long lower tail (Chart #11).
Bearish Candlestick Patterns
Big Red Candle – The market opens near the high and closes near the low (Chart #12).
Inverted Hammer – A red or white candlestick within an upside-down hammer position (Chart #13).
Shooting Star – A red or white candlestick with a small body, a long upper shadow combined with little or no upper tail (Chart #14).
Brief Summary of Candlesticks
- A candlestick is a type of price chart used in technical analysis.
- Each candlestick represents price movement for a specific period of time.
- Four different price points are displayed on each candlestick.
- The price points include open, high, low, and close.
- Candlesticks are one of the oldest forms of technical analysis.
- Candlestick charting was first used by Japanese rice merchants during the 18th century.
- Munehisa Homma was responsible for popularizing candlestick charting.
- Candlestick formations are based on a strict set of rules.
- These rules are universally accepted among all traders and investors.
What Is an IEO?
An Initial Exchange Offering (IEO) is a type of token sale administered by a cryptocurrency exchange. The entire process is controlled and managed by the exchange on behalf of the crypto company. Both parties have a vested interest in the success of the IEO. Neither party receives a payout unless investors purchase the token through the participating exchange. Therefore, it’s not uncommon for the exchange and the token issuer to join forces to help with marketing, promotions, and advertising.
Before launching the IEO, the crypto exchange and token issuer sign an agreement outlining the payout structure. Typically, the token issuing company is required to pay a listing fee along with a percentage of tokens sold through the crypto exchange. The majority of IEO agreements stipulate that the new token must be listed on the exchange for a predetermined amount of time following the initial sale of the token.
Investors who participate in the IEO are required to open an account with the participating crypto exchange. Instead of sending money to the token issuer through a smart contract, the investor deposits funds into his/her crypto account. Funds are dispersed by the crypto exchange to the crypto company.
IEO Versus ICO
As you may recall from our ICO discussion, the first ICO was launched in 2013. However, the ICO explosion did not occur until 2017, followed by its peak in 2018. Without question, the chief complaint within the crypto community concerning ICOs was a large number of failures and outright scams. In fact, the failure rate approached 90% in 2018.
As we have discussed several times, the cryptocurrency community is incredibly innovative. This community is filled with some of the brightest minds in global finance. Not surprisingly, a small group of young men and women were quick to replace problematic ICOs with IEOs in early 2019. The first major crypto exchanges to join the IEO wave occurred in January 2019. IEO activity continues to flourish in 2020.
The main difference between IEO and ICO is the level of success. In a typical ICO, the crypto company received funding immediately upon issuance of the token. Investors had very little recourse once the tokens were dispersed. They were trapped in a vulnerable position. Sadly, many unscrupulous start-up firms basically disappeared upon receipt of the funds commonly known as a ‘rug pull’.
IEOs solve this problem by preventing the token issuer from receiving funds immediately upon the distribution of the tokens. As we discussed earlier, both parties work together to ensure the success of the project, which increases the likelihood of a rising token price.
Although IEOs have only been in existence for two years, the popularity of this new fund-raising method has increased substantially. The success rate of projects launched on IEO is much higher compared to ICOs. Most likely, this trend will continue.
IEO Regulatory Environment
As you may recall from our ICO discussion, crypto companies struggled to clear all of the regulatory hurdles to satisfy financial regulators. Unfortunately, IEO participants, are experiencing the same type of regulatory problems that plagued the ICO marketplace. This by and large means that regulators dissuade people from taking part in IEOs.
A positive to this is that IEOs are largely unregulated and don’t have to satisfy bureaucracy that can stifle innovative projects.
Financial regulators, particularly in the United States, claim that an initial exchange offering is similar to an initial coin offering, even though the token issuer is not directly involved in the sale of the token. An ongoing problem with regulation is whether or not any particular token counts as security and needs regulation, or whether they are utility tokens. Exchanges will typically avoid listing securities on an IEO as it means they have to submit to regulation.
To avoid the strict regulation requirements around securities, crypto exchanges may even opt not to offer tokens in countries like the United States where there is ambiguity about regulation. As long as the IEO is not soliciting in a particular country, registration is not required.
Due to the overwhelming success of IEOs, many of the world’s largest crypto exchanges are becoming heavily involved in IEOs by offering tokens on behalf of start-up companies. Most likely, this trend will continue.
Brief Summary of IEO
- An initial Exchange Offering is a token sale administered by a crypto exchange.
- The entire process is overseen by the crypto exchange.
- Neither party receives a payout unless investors purchase the token.
- The exchange and token issuer will often collaborate with marketing and advertising.
- Both parties sign an agreement outlining the payout structure of the IEO.
- The new token will be listed on the exchange for a predetermined time period.
- Participating IEO investors are required to open an account with the exchange.
- Investors pay for the token by depositing funds into their crypto account.
- IEOs have proven to be safer than ICOs.
- Many crypto exchanges are not participating in heavily regulated countries.
- IEOs have become very popular in the crypto universe.
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