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What Is the Dow Theory? 

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What Is the Dow Theory

The Dow Theory is a stock market indicator originally developed by Charles H Dow, co-founder of The Wall Street Journal. Dow laid out the original framework of the Dow Theory in a series of articles published in the Journal throughout the 1890s.

Dow never had the opportunity to complete his studies on the Dow Theory as he passed away in 1902. Upon his death, William Peter Hamilton gained access to Dow’s original notes and eventually completed the Dow Theory in the early 1900s. Hamilton eventually became the fourth editor of The Wall Street Journal.

The Dow Theory

The Dow Theory is a trend-following indicator designed to generate buy/sell signals based on daily price movements in the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and Dow Jones Transportation Average (DJTA).

The Dow Theory was originally founded on the notion that the overall stock market was in a bullish trend if DJTA was outperforming DJIA on a relative basis.

According to his research, Charles Dow discovered that DJTA was an excellent indicator in determining the strength or weakness of the US economy. Dow concluded that a rise in transportation stocks would signal the beginning of a prolonged period of economic growth for the US economy.

This would lead to an increase in corporate earnings followed by a strong rally in the overall stock market. Conversely, a sustained decline in DJTA would indicate a slowdown in US economic activity. This would be followed by a sell-off in the stock market.

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Dow and the Stock Market

Dow was regarded as one of the most prolific stock market researchers of his generation. Throughout his professional career, he built the largest stock market database in the United States. Dow used his database to determine precisely why DJTA was such a reliable indicator of forecasting big moves in the stock market.

Based on his research, Dow discovered that transportation companies were always the first companies to experience an earnings increase during the early phases of an economic expansion. Dow noted that railroad companies (which comprised a large percentage of DJTA) were responsible for shipping all the products being sold by the manufacturing companies to the general public.

This explains why DJTA was a great leading indicator for the overall stock market. The railroad companies were perfectly positioned within the overall economic cycle to experience an increase in business activity at the corporate level.

Transport Companies

When Dow was conducting his initial research in the 1890s, railroad companies dominated the Dow Jones Transportation Average landscape. At this point in history, trucks and airlines had not yet been invented. Therefore, railroads were the only way to move finished products from the manufacturer to the retailer.

For the past 100+ years, DJTA has transitioned into a much more diversified transportation index. These days, DJTA consists of a mixture of 20 different transportation companies.

  • Airlines – 6
  • Delivery Services – 3
  • Marine Transportation – 2
  • Railroads – 4
  • Rental Leasing – 1
  • Transportation – 1
  • Trucking – 3

As you can see from the list, DJTA is a diverse group of transportation and delivery companies. The index now has only four railroad companies. When Charles Dow created the original transportation index in 1884, 82% of the index was composed of railroad companies.

As the transportation index was modified over the years, many investors were concerned that the Dow Theory would no longer be a useful indicator because of the reduction in the number of railroad companies. However, these concerns proved to be unfounded as the Dow Theory continued to be a very reliable technical indicator.

The Rise of Tech Companies

DJTA has added a few technology-based transportation companies to the index. Most financial experts agree that these technology stocks have actually improved the performance of the Dow Theory indicator, particularly during the past decade. The most recent Dow Theory buy signal occurred on 26 May 2020 (see chart #16 below).

Based on data provided by Jack Schannep, the Dow Theory indicator has easily outperformed a “buy and hold” strategy. Schannep tested the Dow Theory from 1953 through 2018. During this period, the Dow Theory indicator generated an average annual return of 12.9%. Meanwhile, a “buy and hold” strategy returned 10.6%.

Schannep’s research verifies the fact that the Dow Theory is one of the most profitable stock market indicators of all time.

Brief Summary of The Dow Theory

  • The Dow Theory is a stock market indicator originally developed by Charles H Dow.
  • Dow was the co-founder of The Wall Street Journal.
  • The original framework of the Dow Theory was released in a series of articles.
  • Dow never had the opportunity to complete his studies on the Dow Theory.
  • William Peter Hamilton gained access to Dow’s original notes on the Dow Theory.
  • Hamilton completed the Dow Theory in the early 1900s.
  • The Dow Theory is a trend-following indicator based on DJIA and DJTA.
  • A buy signal is generated when DJTA outperforms DJIA on a relative basis.
  • A sell signal is generated when DJTA underperforms DJIA on a relative basis.
  • Dow Jones Transportation Average (DJTA) was created in 1884.
  • For the first several decades of its existence, DJTA was basically a railroad index.
  • The index has now added technology-oriented companies.
  • Despite changes to DJTA, the Dow Theory continues to work well.
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What Is Elliott Wave?

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What Is Elliott Wave

Ralph Nelson Elliott was regarded as one of the greatest technical analysts of the 20th century. In the early-1930s, Elliott began working on a systematic study of fluctuations in the stock market. Based on his analysis, he concluded that fluctuations in the stock market were mainly based on collective human behavior.

Elliott believed that all speculative markets followed fairly predictable price movements based on investor psychology and underlying social principles. In 1938, he combined all of his research into a book called The Wave Principal.

Elliott’s book was very well received within the investment community, particularly among traders who relied on technical analysis.

The Elliot Wave Principle

Elliott passed away in 1948, leaving behind a treasure trove of historical data and research based on his Wave Principal. Elliott’s original work in the field of human behavior actually became more popular in the years following his death.

Several technical analysts expanded on his research, particularly in the area of investor psychology. This additional research also looked at crowd psychology and the herd mentality of crowds. Today, Elliott Wave is one of the most popular forms of technical analysis used to forecast the stock market and other speculative markets.

The Elliott Wave Principal moves between optimism and pessimism in natural sequences. These mood swings create various patterns or waves. Based on Elliott’s model, all market prices fluctuate between impulse and corrective phases. These fluctuations occur regardless of the time frame. In other words, Elliott Wave can be successfully applied to long-term studies or short-term studies.

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Impulse Phases and Corrective Phases

Impulse phases are subdivided into five smaller waves. Corrective phases are subdivided into three smaller waves. In a bull market, waves #1, #3, and #5 of the impulse phase are bullish. Waves #2 and #4 are retracements of the primary bullish trend.

In a bear market, waves #1, #3, and #5 are bearish. Waves #2 and #4 are retracements of the primary bearish trend. The big move always occurs in wave #3.

Elliott Wave table

Waves #1, #3, and #5 are also known as motive waves. These waves always move with the underlying trend. Waves #2 and #4 are also known as corrective waves. They move against the underlying trend. Please review Chart #15.

elliot wave chart

Each motive wave and corrective wave has its own sub-cycle. Each sub-cycle is divided into mini waves. An entire Elliott Wave motive pattern consists of 89 waves, followed by a completed corrective pattern of 55 waves.

During his initial research, Elliott subscribed to the idea that each completed wave pattern represented a degree of movement based on a specific time frame. Each degree of movement was given a name.

Elliott labeled nine different degrees of movement.

  • Grand Supercycle – multi-century
  • Supercycle – multi-decade
  • Cycle – multi-year
  • Primary – months
  • Intermediate – weeks to months
  • Minor – weeks
  • Minute – days
  • Minuette – hours
  • Sub-minuette – minutes

A grand supercycle is the longest degree of movement based on Elliott’s research. The reversal of a grand supercycle is incredibly rare. Most traders and investors will never see a grand supercycle reversal in their lifetime.

Although Elliott Wave has been extremely popular over the past several decades, the main criticism of this trading approach is based on the fact that the entry and exit levels are too subjective.

Additionally, the wave counts are open to interpretation. In an attempt to remedy this problem, many traders who use Elliott Wave on a daily basis prefer to combine the wave counts with Fibonacci ratios. Adding Fibonacci ratios to the mix provides specific entry and exit signals.

Elliott Wave is not perfect. It continues to remain one of the most widely followed trading techniques in the history of technical analysis.

Brief Summary of Elliott Wave

  • Ralph N Elliott is regarded as one of the greatest technical analysts of all time.
  • In the early-1930s, Elliott began to study fluctuations in the stock market.
  • He observed that fluctuations in the stock market were based on human behavior.
  • Throughout the 1930s, Elliott developed a systematic investment approach.
  • The investment approach was based on his observations concerning human behavior.
  • Following his death in 1948, traders continued to study Elliott’s original work.
  • Elliott’s methods actually became more popular during the years following his death.
  • His methodology became known as the Elliott Wave Principle.
  • Elliott Wave Principal moves between optimism and pessimism in natural sequences.
  • These mood swings create various patterns or “waves.”
  • All prices fluctuate between an impulse phase and a corrective phase.
  • According to Elliott, these fluctuations will occur regardless of the time frame.
  • Therefore, Elliott Wave can be applied to long-term studies or short-term studies.
  • In a bull market, waves #1, #3, and #5 are bullish.
  • Waves #2 and #4 are retracements of the primary bullish trend.
  • In a bear market, waves #1, #3, and #5 are bearish.
  • Waves #2 and #4 are retracements of the primary bearish trend.
  • An entire Elliott Wave motive pattern consists of 89 waves.
  • This is followed by a completed corrective pattern of 55 waves.
  • Elliott believed that each completed wave pattern represented a degree of movement.
  • Each degree of movement was based on a specific time frame.
  • Elliott labeled nine different degrees of movement.
  • Elliott Wave continues to remain extremely popular among technical analysts.
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What Is Hashing?

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What Is Hashing

In simple terms, a hash is a function that converts an input of letters and numbers into an encrypted output of a fixed length. A hash is an essential ingredient of blockchain technology. As you may recall, we discussed hashing during our conversation about cryptocurrency mining. Hashing plays a critical role in the mining process, as miners collect transactions and organize them into blocks.

The most important component of a cryptocurrency is the blockchain. We will discuss blockchain technology in a later section. For the purpose of our hashing conversation, it’s important to know that a blockchain is formed by linking together individual blocks of transaction data. To prevent fraudulent transactions, the blockchain only contains validated transactions. These validated transactions are a series of encrypted letters and numbers, known as a hash.

Hashing involves processing the data from a block through a mathematical function, thus creating a fixed-length output. This increases security based on the fact that anyone trying to decrypt the hash won’t be able to determine the length of the input based solely on the length of the output.

A great way to think of how hash functions work on a blockchain is that they act as a digital signature. For the next block to be made, the signature (hash) from the previous block MUST match that of the next block. This is why blockchain tech is considered so secure.

Cryptographic Hash Function

In addition to cryptocurrencies, hashing and hash functions are used across many industries. A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has unique properties making it well suited for cryptography. A cryptographic hash function contains three specific properties needed to ensure security. Let’s briefly review each property.

Deterministic

This means that you will always receive the same result no matter how many times you pass a particular input through a hash function. This property is very important because it becomes impossible to track the input properly if you receive different hashes.

Quick Computation

The hash function must be capable of returning the hash of input quickly and accurately. If the process isn’t fast enough, the system becomes inefficient.

Preimage Resistance

It is infeasible to find two different messages with the same hash value.

Summary

Without question, hashing is a difficult concept to understand. Thankfully, it’s not necessary for the average crypto user to fully grasp the idea of hashing. In reality, miners are the only people in the crypto community who work with hashing and hash functions daily.

Hashing and hash functions have been in existence well before Bitcoin arrived on the scene in 2009. Bitcoin (and cryptocurrency in general) has used hashing to create a decentralized money system that will one day be viewed by financial historians as arguably the greatest innovation in the history of money.

Brief Summary of Hashing

  • A hash converts an input of letters and numbers into a fixed-length encrypted output.
  • Hashing plays a critical role in the mining process.
  • Through hashing, miners are able to validate all transactions on the blockchain.
  • Hashing and hash functions are used across many industry groups.
  • A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash functions with unique properties.
  • Cryptographic hashes are deterministic, quick, and have preimage resistance.
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Everything You Need To Know About Binance Coin

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What is Binance Coin

What is Binance Coin?

Blockchain and cryptocurrency cover a wide range of assets and projects that serve different purposes. For instance, there are several types of crypto exchanges, with each crypto being unique in terms of construction and features.

Binance coin is a cryptocurrency issued by the Binance exchange and trading as a BNB symbol. Similar to other cryptocurrencies, Binance Coin offers multiple uses beyond the Binance Exchange. For instance, it can be used for trading, credit card payments, transaction fees, booking travel arrangements, entertainment, investment, and loans and transfers. It is currently among the most prominent cryptocurrencies globally, with over 1.4 million transactions per second.

Suggested Read: What Is an ICO, and What is it for? – Cryptobite

Who Created Binance Coin?

Binance Coin was created in 2017 by Changpeng Zhao, a developer who had created high-frequency trading software.

When was Binance Coin launched?

Binance Coin was launched in July 2017.

What Is The Price of Binance?

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How Does Binance Coin Work?

Being a cryptocurrency, BNB operates the same way as digital assets in the market—it rises and falls in value depending on how people use and trade it. It can be held in compatible wallets off crypto exchanges and sent directly to others as a form of payment or for other uses. It can be traded for other currencies or cryptos on various exchanges.

Binance Coin can also be used as a form of payment for crypto credit card bills through the Crypto platform. Businesses can also offer BNB as a form of payment for the goods and services they sell as an alternative to the traditional currency; for instance, book travel arrangements such as flights and hotels and buy lottery tickets. BNB is a sought-after option for investing in EFTs, stocks, and other investment opportunities.

How does one get BNB? Having understood the several purposes of the Binance Coin, where and how to get it is a question that crosses many people’s minds. It can be acquired through various platforms, and the most notable way is through Binance Exchange, the crypto’s own exchange. One can get BNB in four critical steps.

  • Get a Binance Coin wallet, also known as coinomi or ledger
  • Locate your own BNB address
  • Sign up for Binance
  • Buy Binance Coin with either a credit card or another crypto

BNB works in tandem with two blockchains—Binance Chain and Binance Smart Chain (BSC). While BSC is a separate blockchain built into the Binance Chain, it runs parallel to BC and carries different features like smart contract capability.

BC was designed for optimal performance. In fact, BC was based on a decentralized exchange (DEX) owned by Binance. Nonetheless, it was limited in allowing developers to build solutions. Therefore, BSC was designed to add more capabilities to the BNB ecosystem, thereby giving developers more functionality. An example is the smart contract functionality available on BSC and not BC.

How To Keep Your Binance Coin Safe?

Binance is currently the most popular and most used exchange to buy and sell coins and tokens. However, is it safe to leave or hold coins on the platform? Cryptosec confirms that Binance is safe and maintains its security in two ways. Firstly, Binance has cold storage where most of the funds are stored, making it significantly difficult to steal funds. Secondly, it has a SAFU fund used to store 10% of trading fees received on their emergency fund. This ensures that users who get their funds stolen can be compensated.

Despite the measures above, being the most popular cryptocurrency exchange means Binance will continue to be a target for hackers. Therefore, it offers guidelines on how users can secure their cryptos. For instance, using regulatory compliant centralized exchanges by AML and KYC checks when trading cryptos. However, prioritize peer-to-peer trading and decentralized exchanges with audits.

Binance offers multiple security options for storing cryptos. One of the ways includes keeping cryptos on regulated exchanges, especially if someone is a newcomer. Using a non-custodial wallet where a user owns the keys provides more security. A more secure option is to keep it in a wallet not connected to the internet. Also, using audited DApps can improve security.

Is Binance Coin A Good Investment?

We do not provide investment advice, only objectively presenting factual data around virtual currencies. That said, even though cryptocurrencies are highly volatile, BNB can be an excellent investment for long-term investors. It is the most popular crypto for a reason; it is attractive to investors. Binance Coin was only introduced to the market less than four years ago, and it has since rapidly grown. It also aims to revolutionize the cryptocurrency space through tokenomics and utilities.

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